Non-Obstructive Azoospermia and Obstructive Azoospermia are two conditions that cause male infertility.
Male infertility is diagnosed using a variety of procedures, including sperm analysis, blood testing, culture exams, and scrotal ultrasounds. The number of sperm, sperm count, morphology, and sperm motility may all be determined using these male fertility tests.
Procedures for Sperm Retrieving
The basic purpose of the sperm retrieval method is to obtain the highest quality and number of sperms possible. The reproductive tract can produce sperm in a variety of ways. It is taken extra precautions to prevent causing any damage to the reproductive tract.
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration (TESA) is another name for TESA (TFNA). Azoospermia is diagnosed or treated using TESA. It’s also capable of extracting sperm from the testicles. It’s usually done in a clinic or hospital using a nerve block. A tiny needle is injected into the skin and testis to carefully extract sperm during this process. There are no more cuts required.
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA)
A technique that, like TESA, may be repeated multiple times at a minimal cost and without a surgical cut. PESA is used to treat obstructive azoospermia in particular. It does not necessitate the use of a high-powered microscope. PESA can be performed under either local or general anaesthesia. The doctor carefully removes fluid from the epididymis using a needle linked to a syringe. When sperm do not come out during the PESA process, a surgical operation is required.
Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)
MESA is a fairly safe sperm retrieval method. Men with vassal or epididymal blockage (s/p vasectomy, congenital bilateral lack of the vas deferens) undergo MESA. It is either done on a scheduled basis or in conjunction with the egg retrieval of their female spouse. A surgical microscope is used in the MESA technique to assist collect sperm from the epididymis tubes. It is carried out under general anaesthesia in the operating room. MESA can extract a large amount of healthy sperm that may be preserved and stored for later use. In comparison to sperm retrieval procedures, MESA enables for a larger quantity of mature sperm. It is the recommended method of retrieval for males with congenital bilateral vas deferens absence since it has no effect on testis steroid production.